When A Cell Is In Late Anaphase Of Mitosis, Which Of The Following May Be Seen?

When a cell is in late anaphase of mitosis, several distinct features may be observed. Anaphase is the stage of cell division where the duplicated chromosomes separate and move towards opposite ends of the cell. As the cell progresses into late anaphase, specific changes become visible. Let’s explore some of the key characteristics and events that may be seen during this stage of mitosis.

In late anaphase, the following phenomena may be observed:

1. **Chromosome Separation**: During anaphase, the sister chromatids, which make up the duplicated chromosomes, separate and move towards opposite poles of the cell. In late anaphase, the chromatids are completely separated and are pulled towards their respective poles by the action of spindle fibers.

2. **Polar Microtubules**: Polar microtubules, a type of cytoskeletal filament, elongate and push the two sets of chromosomes apart. These microtubules extend from both ends of the cell and ensure the proper distribution of chromosomes.

3. **Kinetochore Movement**: The kinetochores, which are protein structures located on the centromeres of chromosomes, play a crucial role in chromosome movement. In late anaphase, the kinetochores are pulled by the spindle fibers, guiding the chromosomes to opposite ends of the cell.

4. **Cell Elongation**: As the chromosomes move towards the poles, the cell elongates. This elongation is essential for the separation and division of genetic material. It prepares the cell for the subsequent stages of cell division.

5. **Contractile Ring Formation**: Towards the end of late anaphase, a contractile ring composed of actin and myosin filaments begins to form at the equator of the cell. This contractile ring contracts during cytokinesis, leading to the physical separation of the cell into two daughter cells.

6. **Nuclear Envelope Reformation**: As the chromosomes reach their respective poles, the late anaphase marks the beginning of the reformation of the nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope, which had disassembled earlier in preparation for mitosis, starts to assemble around each set of chromosomes.

7. **Cleavage Furrow Formation**: The cleavage furrow, a shallow groove that forms along the equator of the cell, becomes visible during late anaphase. This furrow is the precursor to the physical division of the cell during cytokinesis.

8. **Spindle Dissolution**: Towards the end of late anaphase, the spindle apparatus, which is responsible for chromosome separation, begins to disassemble. The microtubules that comprise the spindle break down, which allows for the completion of cell division.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q: What is anaphase?

Anaphase is a stage of cell division, specifically in mitosis, where the duplicated chromosomes separate and move towards opposite ends of the cell. It is preceded by prophase, prometaphase, and metaphase, and followed by telophase and cytokinesis.

Q: What happens during late anaphase?

Late anaphase is characterized by the complete separation of sister chromatids, movement of chromosomes towards opposite poles of the cell, elongation of the cell, and the beginning of contractile ring formation and nuclear envelope reformation.

Q: How is chromosome separation achieved during late anaphase?

Chromosome separation during late anaphase is accomplished by the action of spindle fibers. The kinetochores on the chromosomes attach to the spindle fibers, which then pull the chromosomes towards opposite poles of the cell.

Final Thoughts

In late anaphase of mitosis, the cell goes through essential changes to ensure the proper separation and distribution of genetic material. Chromosome separation, kinetochore movement, cell elongation, contractile ring formation, and nuclear envelope reformation are some of the key events observed during this stage. Understanding the intricate processes occurring during late anaphase provides valuable insights into the remarkable precision and complexity of cellular division. By studying and comprehending these processes, scientists can gain a deeper understanding of normal cell division and the potential implications of any aberrations that may occur.

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